When deciding which mode is appropriate for a BlackBerry 10.2 deployment, departments should consider not only the security implications, but also cost and usability associated to the three modes. Where the department deems the residual risks of using EMM-Corporate to be acceptable they should do so.
1. Usage Scenario
BlackBerry devices will be used remotely over 3G, 4G and non-captive Wi-Fi networks to enable a variety of remote working approaches such as:
accessing OFFICIAL email
reviewing and commenting on OFFICIAL documents
accessing the OFFICIAL intranet resources, the Internet and other web-resources
To support these scenarios, the following architectural choices are recommended:
All data from the corporate perimeter should be routed over a secure enterprise VPN to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of the traffic, and to allow the devices and data on them to be protected by enterprise protective monitoring solutions
An enterprise application catalogue should be used to distribute in-house applications and trusted third-party applications to run in the corporate perimeter
Procedural controls are put in place to effectively risk manage end-user’s use of the personal perimeter. This may include restrictions on which applications users are permitted to install from BlackBerry World into the personal perimeter
2. Summary of Platform Security
This platform has been assessed against each of the 12 security recommendations, and that assessment is shown in the table below. Explanatory text indicates that there is something related to that recommendation that the risk owners should be aware of. Rows marked [!] represent a more significant risk. See How the platform can best satisfy the security recommendations for more details about how each of the security recommendations is met.
1. Assured data-in-transit protection
Traffic from the personal perimeter on the device is not protected by the enterprise VPN.*
There are two types of VPN:
– BlackBerry VPN
– IPsec VPN
Neither of the VPNs have been independently assured to Foundation Grade.
There is currently no assurance scheme to assess the strength and robustness of the proprietary BlackBerry VPN.
2. Assured data-at-rest protection
The device’s data encryption has not been independently assured to Foundation Grade.
Encryption keys protecting sensitive data in the corporate perimeter remain in device memory when the device is locked.
The enterprise cannot control password and encryption settings for data in the personal perimeter.*
4. Secure boot
5. Platform integrity and application sandboxing
6. Application whitelisting
BlackBerry World app installation cannot be configured or monitored within the personal perimeter and Android apps from any source can be installed.*
7. Malicious code detection and prevention
8. Security policy enforcement
Security policies primarily only apply to the corporate perimeter and the boundary between the two perimeters. Security policies do not allow enterprise control of personal applications, interface usage, mail or browsing within the personal perimeter.
9. External interface protection
Radio interfaces such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth cannot be controlled by policy, as these are required for the personal perimeter.*
10. Device update policy
The enterprise cannot force the user to update their device software, or software within the personal perimeter.*
11. Event collection for enterprise analysis
[!] There is no facility for collecting logs remotely from a device. Collecting forensic log information from a device is very difficult.
12. Incident response
If BlackBerry Balance is disabled by using EMM-Regulated mode, the risks marked with an asterisk associated with requirements 1, 6, 8, 9 and 10 are effectively mitigated.
2.1 Significant Risks
The following key risks should be read and understood before the platform is deployed:
The VPN has not been independently assured to Foundation Grade, and does not support some of the mandatory requirements expected from assured VPNs. Without assurance in the VPN there is a risk that data transiting from the device could be compromised
The device’s native data encryption has not been independently assured to Foundation Grade, and does not support some of the mandatory requirements expected from assured full disk encryption products. Without assurance there is a risk that data stored on the device could be compromised
Encryption keys protecting sensitive data in the corporate perimeter remain in device memory when the device is locked. This means that if the device is attacked while powered on and locked, keys and data on the device may be compromised without the attacker needing to know the password
BlackBerry 10.2 does not use any dedicated hardware to protect its keys. If an attacker can get physical access to the device, they can extract password hashes and perform an offline brute-force attack to recover the encryption password
The personal perimeter of the device cannot be managed by the enterprise, meaning that the attack surface cannot be minimised by disabling external interfaces such as Bluetooth and NFC
Traffic from the personal perimeter will also bypass the enterprise VPN, negating any protections granted by corporate monitoring and filtering solutions. To avoid this for non-Wi-Fi communications, a private Access Point Name (APN) could be procured from a chosen cellular carrier and assigned to accounts using BlackBerry Balance
Arbitrary native BlackBerry applications can be installed from BlackBerry World. Whilst there are processes in place which attempt to identify and remove malicious code from BlackBerry World, it could be defeated by a skilled attacker. The operating system is required to protect enterprise data from personal applications. A vulnerability giving elevation of privilege to root, or a flaw in the code handling the perimeters could compromise this separation
Arbitrary Android applications can be installed from any source, with no mechanisms in place to identify potentially hostile applications. Although Android applications run in a sandboxed environment, it is possible that implementation flaws in the Android runtime might give an Android application the same access to the device as a native BlackBerry application within the personal perimeter
3. How the platform can best satisfy the security recommendations
This section details what is required to meet the security recommendations for this platform.
3.1 Assured data-in-transit protection
Use the native BlackBerry VPN client instead of the IPsec VPN client as neither has been independently assured, but BlackBerry recommend the native client for usability reasons. If a Foundation Grade assured VPN client for this platform becomes available, then this assured client should be used instead.
3.2 Assured data-at-rest protection
Use the device’s native data encryption. The corporate perimeter is protected when powered off, but is not protected when the device is locked.
The key is protected in hardware and not available until the user’s password has been entered for the first time after boot.
Use a strong 9-character password to authenticate users to the corporate perimeter on the device. On first use after boot this password unlocks a key which encrypts certificates and other credentials, giving access to enterprise services.
Users should be encouraged to secure the personal perimeter with a suitable PIN/password.
3.4 Secure boot
This requirement is met by the platform without additional configuration.
3.5 Platform integrity and application sandboxing
This requirement is met by the platform without additional configuration.
3.6 Application whitelisting
An enterprise application catalogue can be established to permit users access to an approved list of applications in the corporate perimeter. The enterprise cannot whitelist applications users can install in the personal perimeter. This could be procedurally controlled via user security procedures.
3.7 Malicious code detection and prevention
The enterprise application catalogue should only contain approved in-house applications which have been checked for malicious code. Disable developer mode via policy to prevent side-loading of applications in the corporate perimeter.
3.8 Security policy enforcement
Settings applied through BES cannot be changed by the user. On BlackBerry Balance devices, these settings only apply to the corporate perimeter.
3.9 External interface protection
With BlackBerry Balance enabled, no technical controls exist to prevent users from enabling Wi-Fi, NFC and Bluetooth, or using USB.
3.10 Device update policy
On devices with BlackBerry Balance, the enterprise cannot control when applications in the personal perimeter are updated. The enterprise can update applications in the corporate perimeter remotely using the BES, and can check which device software versions are in use.
3.11 Event collection for enterprise analysis
BlackBerry 10 does not support remote or local historic event collection for enterprise analysis of security incidents. More information on logging is given athttp://www.blackberry.com/btsc/KB26038.
3.12 Incident response
BlackBerry 10 devices can be locked, wiped, and configured remotely by their BES.
4. Network Architecture
Recommended network architecture for BlackBerry 10 deployments
The provisioning terminal should only be used for managing the BES and BlackBerry devices, and should not be used for accessing the Internet or any other corporate applications.
As the personal perimeter cannot be controlled by policy, network routing will bypass the corporate VPN. This means that the personal side of the device will not be subject to any corporate enterprise monitoring or auditing measures.
5. Deployment Process
To prepare the enterprise infrastructure:
Procure and provision a dedicated APN to backhaul traffic into the enterprise, and obtain SIM cards provisioned exclusively to this APN
Procure and set up a BlackBerry Enterprise Server (BES) which is compatible with BlackBerry 10.2 and later devices
Deploy and configure the requisite network components as described previously
Create configuration profiles for the end-user devices in line with the guidance given in this document
Enterprise and User certificates will need to be installed into the shared folder on the BES under the certs folder. This includes any Certificate Authority certificates that are not registered externally.
6. Provisioning Steps
To provision each device to the enterprise infrastructure:
Put the appropriate SIM cards purchased earlier into the device and connect it to the provisioning terminal via USB
Assign the device to a user and upload the IT policies and any software configuration to the device.
7. Policy Recommendations
The following IT Policy settings should be applied to BlackBerry 10 devices by creating configurations on the BES. Other settings (e.g. server address) should be chosen according to the relevant network configuration.
Mobile Hotspot Mode and Tethering
Transfer Work Contacts Using Bluetooth PBAP or HFP
Transfer Work Data Using NFC
Transfer Work Files Using Bluetooth OPP
Transfer Work Messages Using Bluetooth MAP
CCL Data Collection
Maximum Password Age
Maximum Password Attempts
Maximum Password History
Minimum Password Complexity
At least 1 letter, 1 number, and 1 special character
Minimum Password Length
Apply Work Space Password to Full Device
Password Required for Work Space
Application Security Timer Reset
Lock Screen Preview of Work Content
Media Card Encryption
Network Access Control for Work Apps
Backup and Restore Work Space
Personal Apps Access to Work Contacts
Personal Space Data Encryption
Restrict Development Mode
Share Work Data During BBM Video Screen Sharing
Work App Access to Shared Files in Personal Space
Work Network Usage for Personal Apps
External Email Address Warning Message
External Email Domain Allowed List
Appropriate list of domains
Find More Contact Details
Forward or Add Recipients to Private Messages
BBM Video Access to Work Network
Open Links in Work Email Messages in the Personal Browser
Unified View for Work and Personal Accounts and Messages
8. Enterprise Considerations
8.1 Proprietary VPN
The BlackBerry VPN is a proprietary set of technologies which operate differently to the remote access functions of other platforms in this guidance set. As such, organisations wishing to deploy BlackBerry 10 in conjunction with other remote access solutions may need to consider how to integrate the two disparate solutions into the same network architecture.
8.2 BlackBerry Balance
Whilst applications in the corporate workspace can be whitelisted by the organisation, applications in the personal workspace cannot. Consequently, users should pay due care and attention to what applications they download and install to the personal workspace as applications may be able access personal data stored there.
Users must not store sensitive work data in the personal perimeter on the device as that perimeter is not protected to the same level as the corporate perimeter. Should a users’ device be lost, the administrator can choose to remotely wipe the entire device or just the corporate perimeter. Whilst wiping the whole device may be preferential from a security perspective, there may be other policy or legal considerations to take into account before erasing the entire device.
Read more here:: NCSC Guidance